Zika Virus

Zika Virus Zika virus is a mosquito-borne infection which has been associated with profound effects on the unborn fetus in pregnant women. It was first reported in Africa in the 1940s but prior to the major outbreak in Brazil in 2015, few outbreaks have been documented. It has since spread rapidly over most countries in […]

Read More

Zavanelli Manoeuvre

Zavanelli Manoeuvre Extracted from Mayes Midwifery 14th Edition, Sue Macdonald & Julia Magill-Cuerden (Eds). Baillière Tindall, 2011. Courtesy Elsevier A manoeuvre of last resort in which the fetal head is manually flexed and returned to the vagina prior to delivery being undertaken by caesarean section.

Read More

Woods’ Manoeuvre

Woods’ Manoeuvre Extracted from Mayes Midwifery 14th Edition, Sue Macdonald & Julia Magill-Cuerden (Eds). Baillière Tindall, 2011. Courtesy Elsevier  A manoeuvre used to assist in the delivery of the baby in shoulder dystocia. The woman should be assisted into the lithotomy position or onto all fours to remove restrictions to the sacrum and coccyx (present […]

Read More

Wharton’s Jelly

Wharton’s Jelly Wharton’s jelly is a gelatinous substance that provides insulation and protection of the blood vessels within the umbilical cord against extension, bending, twisting and compression. It is a primitive connective tissue (primary mesenchyme) and contains stem cells (in addition to those present in umbilical cord blood) as well as lipids and growth factors.

Read More

Waterbirth

Waterbirth Extracted from Mayes Midwifery 14th Edition, Sue Macdonald & Julia Magill-Cuerden (Eds). Baillière Tindall, 2011. Courtesy Elsevier Therapeutic use of water in childbirth has grown in popularity, and most maternity units now offer a birthing pool. Some women may wish to spend most of their labour and birth in the water pool, others choose […]

Read More

Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding (VKDB)

Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding (VKDB) Extracted from Myles Textbook for Midwives 15th Edition. Diane M. Fraser, Margaret A. Cooper (Eds). London; Churchill Livingstone: 2009. Courtesy Elsevier. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB), previously known as haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, most commonly occurs between birth and 8 weeks of life, although it may occur up to […]

Read More

Ventouse Method

Ventouse Method Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier The ventouse method is a commonly used intervention in assisted vaginal birth. The ventouse is a vacuum extraction instrument that applies traction. It can be used as an alternative to forceps. […]

Read More

Varicella Zoster

Varicella Zoster Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a highly contagious DNA virus of the herpes family, transmitted by respiratory droplets and contact with vesicle fluid. It causes varicella (chickenpox). The virus has an […]

Read More

Valsalva Manouevre

Valsalva Manouevre Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier The Valsalva manoeuvre describes the process of managed active pushing accompanied by breath holding in the second stage of labour. It is now accepted that this process may have adverse consequences […]

Read More

Vaginal Seeding

Vaginal Seeding A process of giving babies born by caesarean section a swab of the mother’s vaginal fluids in the belief that it will ‘seed’ their immune systems to help protect them from developing conditions such as asthma, food allergies and hay fever in later life. The concept has been promoted by advocates of the […]

Read More

Vaginal Examination

Vaginal Examination Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier Vaginal examination may be carried out to assess progress in labour. Although it is not essential to examine the woman vaginally at frequent intervals, it may be useful to do so […]

Read More

Vaginal Birth After Caesarean (VBAC)

Vaginal Birth After Caesarean (VBAC) Planned VBAC is appropriate for, and may be offered to the majority of women with a singleton pregnancy with cephalic presentation at 37+ weeks’ gestation, who have had a single previous lower segment caesarean delivery, with or without a history of previous vaginal birth. It has a success rate of […]

Read More

Uterus, Acute Inversion

Uterus, Acute Inversion Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier Second degree inversion of the uterus This is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of the third stage of labour. Classification of inversion Inversion can be classified according to severity […]

Read More

Uterus

Uterus Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier The non-pregnant uterus is a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ. It is 7.5 cm long, 5 cm wide and 2.5 cm in depth, each wall being 1.25 cm thick. The cervix forms the […]

Read More

Urinary Tract Infections In Newborns

Urinary Tract Infections In Newborns Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier Urinary tract infections can result from bacteria such as E. coli, or less often from a congenital anomaly that obstructs urine flow. The signs are usually those of […]

Read More

Umbilical Cord

Umbilical Cord Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier The umbilical cord extends from the fetus to the placenta and transmits the umbilical blood vessels, two arteries and one vein. The cord is cover with a layer of amnion continuous […]

Read More

Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplama gondii, a protozoan parasite found in uncooked meat and cat and dog faeces. Maternal-fetal transmission results from poor hygiene. Infected neonates may be asymptomatic at birth but […]

Read More

TENS

TENS Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a method of pain relief involving the use of a mild electrical current. There is insufficient high-quality evidence to support its use as a reliable method of pain relief, although some practitioners have reported that it seems to help some people, depending on the individual and the condition […]

Read More

Tachypnoea

Tachypnoea Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier Tachypnoea in neonates is an abnormal respiratory rate at rest above 60 breaths per minute. It is important to observe the baby’s breathing (as part of the initial assessment of the baby’s […]

Read More

Tachycardia

Tachycardia Tachycardia is a cardiac arrhythmia in which the heart rate becomes abnormally rapid. The incidence of sustained tachycardia in pregnant women is around 2 – 3 per 1,000. Diagnosis is with echocardiotography (ECG). Exercise ECG can be reasonably carried out during pregnancy provided that exercise is not contraindicated for obstetric reasons. Drug treatment for […]

Read More

Symphysiotomy

Symphysiotomy Symphysiotomy is a surgical procedure to divide the cartilage of the pubic symphysis to widen the pelvis to facilitate delivery of the baby when there is a mechanical problem. It may be used (rarely in developed countries) in instances of cephalopelvic disproportion or shoulder dystocia when there is no option to perform a caesarean […]

Read More

Stillbirth

Stillbirth Stillbirth is the term for the death of a baby after 24 weeks of pregnancy but before birth. The legal definition stipulates that the baby should not, ‘at any time after being completely expelled from its mother, breathe or show any other sign of life.’ A medical practitioner or midwife present at the birth […]

Read More

Smoking in Pregnancy

Smoking in Pregnancy Smoking in pregnancy poses significant health risks to the mother and baby. In addition to all the health risks associated with smoking for the general population, some risks to the mother are specific to pregnancy, including ectopic pregnancy, placenta praevia, and pre-eclampsia. Pregnant women who smoke are also at increased risk of […]

Read More

Shoulder Dystocia

Shoulder Dystocia Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier Shoulder dystocia is the failure of the shoulders to traverse the pelvis spontaneously after delivery of the head. Incidence is around 0.3 per cent of all deliveries. The anterior shoulder becomes […]

Read More

Shock

Shock Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier Shock can be classified as follows: Hypovolaemic – the result of a reduction in intravascular volume. Cardiogenic – impaired ability of the heart to pump blood. Distributive – an abnormality in the vascular […]

Read More

Sepsis

Sepsis Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening condition and a medical emergency. Sepsis may not be obvious and a high index of suspicion is often required to make the diagnosis. Early aggressive treatment increases the changes of survival and every hour that treatment is delayed increases mortality. See also Shock The Practising Midwife featured article Vigilance […]

Read More

Rubin’s Manoevre

Rubin’s Manoevre Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier A rotational manoeuvre to relieve shoulder dystocia. Pressure is exerted over the fetal back to adduct and rotate the shoulders.

Read More

Rubella

Rubella Rubella (German measles) is a mild viral infection that is trivial in children, more severe in adults. One attack confers immunity. Maternal rubella infection in early weeks of pregnancy causes fetal damage (commonly multiple defects) in up to 90% of infants. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is a major cause of developmental abnormalities including blindness […]

Read More

Rhesus D Incompatibility

Rhesus D Incompatibility Extracted from Survival Guide to Midwifery, 2nd Edition (2012) Diane M. Fraser and Margaret A. Cooper, Oxford; Churchill Livingstone: 2012. Courtesy Elsevier Rhesus (RhD) isoimmunisation causes haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Few antibodies to blood group antigens other than those in the Rh system cause severe HDN; fetal transfusion is unusual […]

Read More

Signup for Newsletter

Register your email to keep up to date with the latest information directly to you.